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How lipo battery’s performance affected by temperature?

battery consume

I think everyone here must have the similar experience with me, your smartphone will consume very fast, your phone will dead for only half a day. In fact, the lithium-ion polymer batteries are the vast majority used of smartphones, and a variety of factors will affect the performance of the lipo battery. These factors are similar to RC devices such as our drones and RC car. Especially for temperature factors, so let’s talk about how temperature affects the performance of the battery and why it affects it.

Does temperature affect lipo battery’s performance?

Battery in high temperature or low-temperature environment affect the performance of the battery? Let’s first look at the following chart:

Battery discharge voltage curve at different temperatures
Constant current discharge curve of 3C products under different ambient temperatures

We can see that during the battery used, the higher electric current, faster voltage decay speed, and overload of the high current is more likely causing the battery to be over-discharged and damaged (safety level reduced, life decay is too fast). Therefore, the ambient temperature has a great influence on the performance of the battery, and the lower the temperature, the lower the discharge platform and efficiency.

Low temperature harm battery capacity

The optimal level of operating temperature for lithium batteries is 0 to 35℃. The low-temperature environment will reduce the activity of lithium ions, the lipo battery discharge capacity will be weak, and the use time will be shortened. If the lithium battery using in a low-temperature environment for a short period of time, the damage is only temporary and does not damage the battery capacity. The performance will recover when reinforcing the temperature.

However, if the battery is charged and discharged in a low-temperature environment for a long time, metal lithium will be separated out on the surface of the “battery anode”. This process is irreversible and permanently damage to the battery capacity. Like sometimes, at low temperatures, our smartphone will automatically shut down. It is for the purpose of protecting the battery, on the other side, it is also caused by the unqualified and aging of the self-battery.

So, how to use batteries in an extreme environment?

Recommendations in Summer, or High temperature environment:

– Charging

  • The charging temperature range from 5 to 45°C;
  • The upper limit voltage of charging shall not exceed 4.22V. The temperature at the period of charging shall not exceed 45 °C;
  • Charging needs to be charged at room temperature (≤35 °C), used within 48 hours after charging, if not used, timely discharge to the storage voltage (3.8-3.9V);
  • The battery cannot be charged immediately after high-temperature discharge or high temperature, and the battery surface temperature can be charged below 40 °C.
  • Must use the manufacturer’s matching charger for charging, can not illegally use other equipment to carry out large current on the battery (≥1.5C)
  • The upper limit voltage of charging shall not exceed 4.22V. The temperature during charging shall not exceed 45 °C.

– Discharge

  • The temperature range during discharge is within 45 ° C;
  • The discharge current shall not exceed the maximum current identified in the specification;
  • The lower limit alarm voltage of discharge shall not be lower than 3.6V, the rebound voltage shall not be lower than 3.65V, and the surface temperature of the battery after high current discharge shall not exceed 70°C;
  • The battery should not be exposed to the sun before and after discharge. The surface temperature of the battery before discharge should not exceed 45 °C.

Recommendations in Winter, or Low temperature environment:

– Charging

  • Charging should be carried out at room temperature (5 ° C or above, 20 ° C is best), such as indoors, cars, etc., and can not be charged in high ≥ 40 °C environment;
  • Retrieving the battery from the outside cannot be charged immediately, and then charging the battery after the surface temperature of the battery reaches the room temperature environment;
  • must use the manufacturer’s matching charger for charging, can not illegally use other equipment to carry out large current on the battery (≥1.5C)

– Discharge

  • After discharge, the battery should be effectively insulated (such as using a thermos cup, incubator, etc.) to ensure that the temperature of the battery body is kept above 10 °C, 20 °C is best.
  • After the battery is loaded into the aircraft, it is necessary to check the remaining battery power from the APP, and whether the voltage information is abnormal;
  • When the battery temperature does not reach 20 °C or above, it is not suitable for large maneuvering.
  • Compared with the room temperature (about 20 °C), the battery life of the battery will be significantly shortened in the low-temperature environment. After the low battery alarm, the drone should be returned immediately for charging.

Use high temperature, Low-temperature resistant lithium batteries

In order to ensure the life and safety of the lithium battery, the protection management system (BMS system) is adopted in the battery pack of the high-temperature lithium battery to prevent overcharging, over-discharging, high-temperature operation, low-temperature charging, or short circuit, and even safety problem. Such as Grepow fast-charge battery, the temperature will rise steadily during the fast charging process. The surface temperature of the fast charge battery must not exceed 65 degrees Celsius. During the fast charging process, the temperature will rise stably. The surface temperature of the battery will not exceed 65 degrees Celsius.

Other battery option: LiFePO4 Battery

In other application areas, like e-bike, camping portable power station, usually choose Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery (LiFePO4 Battery), also called LFP battery. It is a type of rechargeable battery. LiFePO4 technologies offer high-powered cell performance compatible with lots of lithium-ion application to deliver more power and extend life, also has these six advantages:

  1. Good high-temperature resistance.
  2. No memory effect
  3. Higher-capacity compare with same size lead acid battery
  4. Longer cycle life than other lithium-ion batteries
  5. Good safety characteristics and Eco-friendly
  6. Ideal drop-in replacement for lead-acid batteries

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